Ohlone Costanoan Esselen Nation (OCEN) is historically known
as the Monterey Band of Monterey County as the results of the
Congressional Homeless Indian Acts of 1906, 1908 and later years.
Both Special Indian Agent Charles E. Kelsey (1905-1913), and Reno
Superintendent, James Jenkins (Reno Agency Annual Report 1923)
identified our tribe as the Monterey Band of Monterey County.
Charles Kelsey specifically identified on the 1905-1906 Special Indian
Census, Thomas Miranda and family living on the Sur Rancheria
(currently there are more than 100 members of this lineage enrolled in
OCEN). Before that in 1883 Special Indian Agent Helen Hunt
Jackson identified our tribe as the "San Carlos Indians, living near the
old San Carlos Mission at Monterey" and she wrote to the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs notifying him about placing our tribe
along with the Santa Ynez Chumash directly under her jurisdiction
[see Heizer, ed 1979 Federal Concern About Conditions of California
Indians 1853 to 1913: Eight Documents Ballena Press Publications
No. 13 page 88.]
Under the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act our Tribal Elders
and their families enrolled with the BIA and we identified ourselves as
either "Tribe: Mission San Carlos" or as Esselen." Our families again
enrolled with the BIA during the second (1948-1955) and third (1968-
1970) enrollment periods. Our direct ancestors served as linguistic
consultants to Alexander Taylor (1856), Alfred Kroeber (1902-1910),
C. Hart Merriam (1902-1922), and John P. Harrington, Field
Ethnologist for the Smithsonian Museum's Bureau of American
Ethnology (1930-1939), as well as other linguists.
To date OCEN has completed all the standards and requirements
under the current administrative process 25 CFR Part 83 for
reaffirmation as a Federally Recognized Tribe. Our Tribe was never
legally "Terminated" by any act of Congress, but instead suffered
neglect by those BIA agents charged to purchase home sites under the
Congressional Homeless California Indian Appropriation Acts. Agency
Superintendents such as Lafayette A. Dorrington who was responsible
for the Sacramento Agency from 1918 to 1930, was derelict in his
duties and argued as his personal belief that land should not be
purchased for California Indians. It was due to his "gross negligence"
and crass indifference" that our tribal band as well as one hundred and
thirty four other California tribes were removed from the list of
Recognized tribes by 1927.
We have also demonstrated that our Tribe was never legally
"Terminated" by any act of Congress, Executive action or Federal
Court Order. In fact, Recognition is for perpetuity, until the Tribe
notifies Congress of its desire to "Terminate" itself and abandon its
tribal status as a tribe.
Presently Ohlone Costanoan Esselen Nation represents over 600
enrolled tribal members of Esselen, Carmeleno, Monterey Band,
Rumsen, Chalon, Soledad Mission, San Carlos Mission (Carmel)
and/or Costanoan Mission Indian descent from at least 19 villages
from a contiguous region surrounding Monterey Bay. We often hear
why does Esselen Nation claim so many village homelands? The
answer is, "The descendants of these villages comprise the historic
Monterey Band of Monterey County and they chose to enroll in
OCEN/Esselen Nation as their legal tribal government representative."
Photograph of Shewker (Redtail Hawk) by Louise J. Miranda Ramirez
|OCEN TRIBAL MEMBERS
PLEASE GO TO CONTACT US
PAGE - PLEASE BE ADVISED
THAT ENROLLMENT IS
CLOSED NO APPLICATIONS
WILL BE PROCESSED.
Ohlone/Costanoan-Esselen Indians of the Greater Monterey Bay Area
Photo by: Louise J. Miranda Ramirez
Pacific Grove, CA - June 2012